Strength Training as a Sleep Aid

The Importance of Sleep & How Strength Training Can Improve It

Woman sleeping after Strength Training

As we get older, it becomes more challenging to bounce back after we don't get a good night's sleep.

We have so many demands on our time—jobs, family, errands—not to mention finding the time to relax and have fun. To fit everything in, we often sacrifice… Sleep 😴.

But sleep has an impact on our mental and physical health. It’s vital to gaining strength, losing fat, recovering from injury, and your overall well-being.

To learn about the importance of sleep and how strength training can help improve the quality of Z’s you get, keep reading.

The Importance of Quality Sleep

Sleep helps you feel rested each day. But while you’re sleeping, your brain and body don’t just shut down. Internal organs and processes are hard at work throughout the night.

Over time, skimping on sleep can mess up more than just your morning mood. Studies show getting quality sleep can help improve all sorts of issues, from your blood sugar to your workouts.

So what is enough sleep? The National Sleep Foundation (NSF) defines “enough” as: “A sleep duration that is followed by a spontaneous awakening and leaves one feeling refreshed and alert for the day.”

The keyword there is spontaneous, or without an alarm clock. The exact number of hours necessary to achieve that refreshed feeling varies. Still, for most adults, it’s between 7 and 8 hours a night. Here are some great reasons to get enough sleep:

Sharper Memory

When you’re running low on sleep, you’ll likely have trouble holding onto and recalling details. That’s because sleep plays a big part in both learning and memory. Without enough sleep, it’s tough to focus and take in new information.

Your brain also doesn’t have enough time to store memories so that you can recall them correctly later. Sleep lets your brain catch up, so you’re ready for new experiences.

Mood Boost

Another thing your brain does while you sleep is process emotions. When you cut that short, you tend to have more negative emotional reactions and fewer positive ones.

Chronic lack of sleep can also raise the chance of having a mood disorder. [1]

One large study [2] shows that when you have insomnia, you’re five times more likely to develop depression, and your odds of anxiety or panic disorders are even higher.

Refreshing slumber helps you hit the reset button on a bad day, improve your outlook on life, and be better prepared to meet challenges.

Healthier Heart

While you sleep, your blood pressure goes down, giving your heart and blood vessels a bit of a rest. The less sleep you get, the longer your blood pressure stays up during a 24-hour cycle.

High blood pressure can lead to heart disease, including stroke. A good night’s sleep might protect against a heart attack.

The Circulation Study, which looked at the sleep habits of more than 52,000 Norwegian men and women, found that people who have insomnia most nights of the week face a 30-45% greater heart attack risk.

“It’s important that people are aware of this connection between insomnia and heart attack and talk to their doctor if they’re having symptoms,” said lead researcher Lars Erik Laugsand, MD, from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology.

The reason for the link may be that not sleeping enough causes high blood pressure and hormonal changes. Short-term downtime can have long-term payoffs.

Steadier Blood Sugar

During the deep, slow-wave part of your sleep cycle, the amount of glucose in your blood drops. Not enough time in this deepest stage means you don’t get that break to allow a reset — like leaving the volume turned up on your phone while listening to music all day. Eventually, the battery will crash and will need a recharge to keep going.

Your body will have a harder time responding to your cells’ needs and blood sugar levels. Allow yourself to reach and remain in this deep sleep, and you’re less likely to get type 2 diabetes [3].

Germ Fighting

To help ward off illnesses, your immune system identifies harmful bacteria and viruses in your body and destroys them. Ongoing lack of sleep changes the way your immune cells work. They may not attack as quickly, and you could get sick more often. Good nightly rest can help you avoid that tired, worn-out feeling, as well as spending days in bed as your body tries to recover.

Weight Control

When you’re well-rested, you’re less hungry. Being sleep-deprived messes with the hormones in your brain — leptin and ghrelin — that control appetite.

With those out of balance, your resistance to the temptation of unhealthy foods goes way down. And when you’re tired, you’re less likely to want to get up and move your body.

Together, it’s a recipe for putting on pounds. The time you spend in bed goes hand-in-hand with the time you spend in the kitchen and in your workouts to help you manage your weight.

Sleep Your Way Muscle Growth

As we sleep, energy consumption is lowered, allowing us to use the high-quality food we eat during the day to more efficiently build muscle. Growth hormone is naturally released, improving muscular recovery and regeneration.

Also, as we sleep, the brain recharges. This is important for building muscle because a rested brain is a motivated and focused brain. In simple terms, when you sleep, you recover.

When you recover, you replace, repair, and rebuild—all of which are needed for optimal progress.

Lower Cancer Risk

A 2011 study [4] published in the journal Cancer found that people who averaged fewer than six hours of sleep each night had an almost 50% increase in the risk of colorectal adenomas, a precursor to cancerous tumors, compared to those who clocked in at seven hours a night.

One study author said the risk increase was comparable to that of having a first-degree relative with colon cancer. Although more research is needed on the sleep-cancer link, some experts think that the hormone melatonin, which has been linked to DNA repair, may play a role.

It’s no secret that struggles with sleep increase as we age. These issues come from a variety of causes: illnesses, side effects of medication, changes in circadian rhythm, increased sensitivity to light exposure, inactivity, and elevated nervous system activity, to name a few.

While no one wants to experience the mental fog that comes from sleep deprivation, there are more significant consequences to sleep loss.

Some researchers believe sleep issues contribute to many aging-related health issues.

Sleep Deficiencies

Sleep can be powerful… if we get enough of it.

We know about the many benefits of getting good quality sleep, but what about the effects of not getting a good night’s rest?

Check out some of the side effects of sleep deficiencies when quality sleep is not a part of your nightly norm:

  • Long Term Mood Disorders
  • Sickness
  • Diabetes
  • Infertility
  • Weight Gain
  • Low Libido
  • Heart Disease

What Affects Our Sleep?

More is not better when it comes to exercise is kind of our philosophy. And when it comes to getting good sleep, we think the same motto can be applied. Rather than finding all the things you can do to improve your sleep, a better question to ask yourself is — What can I stop doing?

Smartphones, TVs, and Technology

Bedtime routines nowadays commonly include scrolling social media or watching Netflix. Although it may be an attempt to wind down for the night, too much tech before bed can mess with your sleep.

Studies show that scrolling social media in bed before hitting snooze is associated with sleep and mood dysfunction [5]. Those who have higher “in-bed” scrolling times, over an hour or so, are more likely to have insomnia, anxiety, and short sleep times overall [6].

Tech before bed doesn’t just cause feelings of anxiousness, it affects the way our brains are wired.

Our circadian rhythm, a natural 24-hour cycle responding to light and dark, is most sensitive to light in the evenings. Naturally, when it gets dark and we approach bedtime, our brains produce melatonin which promotes sleep.

Research shows that exposure to LED lights, particularly in the evening hours, suppresses melatonin secretion.

So when the light from our phones, tablets, and TVs is pouring in, it interferes with sleep production, sleep efficiency, and quality of sleep.

Eating Before Bed

Latenight snacks and nightcaps. Sounds fun right?

We say go for it… sometimes. But when it becomes the norm, it’s likely doing more harm to your sleep health than good.

Studies suggest that eating later in the evening and closer to bedtime can lead to eating more meals overall, weight gain, and higher daily caloric intake [7].

In fact, the closer dinner time is to bedtime shows there’s higher increase of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) [8].

Alcohol and Sleep

A review of 27 studies [9] shows that alcohol does not improve sleep quality.

According to the findings, alcohol does allow healthy people to fall asleep quicker and sleep more deeply for a while. Still, it reduces rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. And the more you drink before bed, the more pronounced these effects. REM sleep happens about 90 minutes after we fall asleep. It’s the stage of sleep when people dream, and it’s thought to be restorative.

Disruptions in REM sleep may cause daytime drowsiness, poor concentration, and rob you of needed Zs.

“Alcohol may seem to be helping you to sleep, as it helps induce sleep, but overall it is more disruptive to sleep, particularly in the second half of the night,” says researcher Irshaad Ebrahim, medical director at The London Sleep Centre.

“Alcohol also suppresses breathing and can precipitate sleep apnea,” or pauses in breathing that happen throughout the night. The more a person drinks before bed, the more substantial the disruption. “One to two standard drinks seem to have minimal effects on sleep,” Ebrahim says.

“REM is the more mentally restorative type of sleep,” says Michael Breus, Ph.D., a sleep specialist in Scottsdale, Ariz. “Alcohol is not an appropriate sleep aid. If you rely on alcohol to fall asleep, recognize that you have a greater likelihood to sleepwalk, sleep talk, and have problems with your memory.”

Exercise Before Bed

What about exercising before bed?

Research shows doing vigorous exercise less than one hour before bed can potentially impair sleep quality [10].

While high-intensity exercise within an hour of going to bed can inhibit quality sleep, it's proven to be extraordinarily beneficial for quality sleep any other time of day.

You can schedule your high-intensity 20-minute workouts any time of day, ideally concluding at least one hour before bed.

How Does Strength Training Improve Sleep?

Thankfully, strength training works as a sleep aid for many men and women who were previously poor or average sleepers.

Strength training can improve sleeping habits in less than 10 weeks, although its possible benefits can happen even sooner.

While resistance training does not increase the ease of sleeping for all people, it also has not demonstrated negative sleeping effects on anyone in research. In other words, it won’t hurt, but it certainly may help.

For at least some people, just a small amount of strength training is all that’s necessary to notice a significant difference in sleep.

This was noticed in a study led by a researcher at Harvard [11] Men and women around 70 years old participated in a brief strength training program that involved five exercises that targeted the major muscle groups in the upper and lower body.

Each of these exercises was performed for one set with weights that were very challenging. The trainees exercised three days per week.

After 10 weeks, the strength-trained individuals experienced a 40% improvement in self-assessed sleep (according to detailed pre-and post-intervention questionnaires).

This was even more impressive when considering that the control group, who met twice per week for health education sessions, saw no improvement.

Dissecting the results even further, all 15 participants in the strength program either improved or remained the same. This indicates that, at the very worst, strength training won’t keep you up at night. If it has any effect, it will help you sleep.

The people in the study who strength trained were poor sleepers at the start and benefited from getting more sleep in a number of ways.

At the end of the study, self-assessed daytime dysfunction decreased and ratings of vitality and social functioning improved. Oddly enough, social functioning scores actually improved in the strength group more than the health education group, who socialized as part of their education classes!

Another study performed at Texas Tech University showed a similar improvement in sleep after three months of strength training with an older group who averaged closer to 80 years of age [12].

Female member talks about better sleep from strength training
Female testimonial on strength training and sleep

What have we learned?

Sleep is majorly important in our physical and mental well-being. It’s vital to recovering from workouts and helps to prevent mood disorders and sleep deficiencies.

We know that social media consumption, scrolling our smartphones, and watching TV as part of our bedtime routine is not only preventing us from falling asleep, it is impairing the quality of the sleep we get and contribute to anxiety and depression.

And taking comfort in snacks and alcohol late at night increases the chances of developing diseases such as GERD or sleep apnea, both of which cause intermittent sleep interruptions.

To increase your chance of quality sleep, strength train consistently and free yourself from the aforementioned deterrents in the remaining couple of hours before bed.

We’ve seen similar experiences with our members at The Perfect Workout. After they begin training with us, some report that they’re sleeping better than they have in years…or ever.

Although improved sleep is not promised, strength training is highly unlikely to hurt your ability to sleep…and can be a much more desirable solution than taking sleep aids or medications to help you catch some quality Z’s.

If you would like to learn more about our method of strength training, read about our methodology. If you are new to The Perfect Workout, try a workout with us and start with a FREE Introductory Session.

  1. Al-Abri, Mohammed A. “Sleep Deprivation and Depression: A bi-directional association.” Sultan Qaboos University medical journal vol. 15,1 (2015): e4-6.
  2. Neckelmann, D. et al., Chronic Insomnia as a Risk Factor for Developing Anxiety and Depression, Sleep. 2007; 30 (7): 873-880.
  3. Zhu B, Quinn L, Kapella MC, et al. Relationship between sleep disturbance and self-care in adults with type 2 diabetes. Acta Diabetol. 2018;55(9):963-970. doi:10.1007/s00592-018-1181-4
  4. University Hospitals Case Medical Center. (2011, February 8). Lack of sleep found to be a new risk factor for colon cancer. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 12, 2021 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/02/110208112741.htm
  5. Sushanth Bhat, Genevieve Pinto-Zipp, Hinesh Upadhyay, Peter G. Polos, “To sleep, perchance to tweet”: in-bed electronic social media use and its associations with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, mood, and sleep duration in adults, Sleep Health, Volume 4, Issue 2, 2018,Pages 166-173, ISSN 2352-7218,
  6. Blume, C., Garbazza, C. & Spitschan, M. Effects of light on human circadian rhythms, sleep and mood. Somnologie 23, 147–156 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11818-019-00215-x
  7. Reid KJ, Baron KG, Zee PC. Meal timing influences daily caloric intake in healthy adults. Nutr Res. 2014;34(11):930-935. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2014.09.010
  8. Fujiwara Y, Machida A, Watanabe Y, et al. Association between dinner-to-bed time and gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100(12):2633-2636. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2005.00354.x
  9. Ebrahim, I.O., Shapiro, C.M., Williams, A.J. and Fenwick, P.B. (2013), Alcohol and Sleep I: Effects on Normal Sleep. Alcohol Clin Exp Res, 37: 539`-549. https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.12006
  10. Stutz J, Eiholzer R, Spengler CM. Effects of Evening Exercise on Sleep in Healthy Participants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med. 2019;49(2):269-287. doi:10.1007/s40279-018-1015-0
  11. Singh, N. A., Clements, K. M., Fiatarone, M. A.  (1997). Sleep, Sleep Deprivation,  and Daytime Activities A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effect of Exercise on  Sleep. Sleep, 20(2), 95-101.
  12. Ferris,  L.  T.,  Williams,  J.  S.,  Shen,  C.  L.,  O’Keefe,  K.  A.,  &  Hale,  K.  B.  (2005).  Resistance training improves sleep quality in older adults—a pilot study. J Sports  Sci Med, 4(3), 354-60.

10 Healthy Habits to Start (Only 20 minutes!)

10 Habits to Improve Health

10 healthy habits to improve health

Creating a healthier life, diet, mindset or relationship can feel very motivating this time of year – and also a little overwhelming.

But a healthier you can happen now with just the slightest shifts in behavior.

Master of transformation Tony Robbins teaches something called the 2-millimeter rule. It’s the idea that an ultra-slight, 2mm change in behavior can yield drastic results.

We took that approach and applied it to healthy habits. How can we continually shift our health: body, mind, and spirit just 20 minutes at a time?

Here’s what we came up with…

Practice Gratitude

Studies show that practicing gratitude can actually improve your physical and psychological health. By feeling grateful and appreciative, you can alleviate stress, reduce toxins in the body, and improve sleep and overall feeling of well-being.

Guess what? You can feel grateful and appreciative about ANYTHING. It can be about something in the past, something you are currently experiencing, or even something you desire to happen.

In fact, the brain does not know the difference between reality or imagination.

Director of Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience Laboratory at CU Boulder, Tor Wager said, ”Imagination is a neurological reality that can impact our brains and bodies in ways that matter for our wellbeing,”

This means you can reap the benefits of practicing gratitude, even by dreaming up something that hasn’t happened yet!

And the best part. You can do it any time, anywhere. 

Although it may not take 20 minutes to feel grateful, we encourage you to take the time so it truly becomes a practice. 

Spending 20 minutes a day on gratitude and  is easy

Practice Gratitude

Take a Walk

Move your body by doing what it’s made to do – walk!

It’s probably no surprise to you that walking is good for your health. You simply feel better when you can be up and about, moving around.

Harvard Health shared research that outlined some enlightening benefits to walking:

  • Supports weight maintenance and helps prevent weight gain
  • Can help reduce sugar cravings
  • Reduces joint pain 
  • Lowers risk of breast cancer
  • Boosts immunity

You’ll want to be consistently strength training for exercise but walking serves as an excellent activity to do on rest days.

 

Bodies in motion, stay in motion. Take a break from the computer today and replace it with a 20-minute stroll.

Grounding to Recharge

Grounding, also known as earthing, is a direct contact between the earth and skin to “recharge” or heal the body. Most commonly, grounding is done by simply placing your bare hands or feet on natural ground.

Grounding “enables free electrons from the Earth’s surface to spread over and into the body, where they can have antioxidant effects.” (NCBI)

Research shows grounding can help improve sleep, reduce stress, heal wounds faster, and more!  

“Aaron Rodgers, Green Bay Packers Quarterback added Earthing to his optimized wellness and fitness routine aimed at extending his active playing days and overall health.”

— Milwaukee Journal Sentinel

We encourage you to take 20 minutes and get your grounding on outside but here’s a cheat for those who are stuck inside all day…

You can find tools such as grounding mats that simulate the experience of grounding so you can get the benefits of this electro-recharge while working at your desk.

Sun Exposure

Getting regular exposure to a little sunshine helps your body absorb Vitamin D, an important vitamin that isn’t found in a lot of foods.

Why do we need vitamin D?


By getting enough Vitamin D, we keep our bones, muscles, and teeth healthy and strong, and help prevent deficiencies and diseases like Osteoporosis.

Weather not cooperating? Sun lamps can be a great alternative for those who don’t live in sunny climates or want to bring the sunshine inside.

Power Napping

We realize that not everyone can fall asleep like a baby on demand, but for those of you who can – it may be time to start power napping!

Research shows, “An ultra short period of only 6 min of napping is already sufficient to significantly boost declarative memory performance.” (Journal of Sleep Research)

Not only does a very quick power nap help improve memory but it also has the following positive effects on our health…

Power napping (a nap typically under 30 minutes) can:

  • Reduce overall sleepiness throughout the day
  • Improve memory
  • Improve learning
  • Boost emotional stability

Consider this your permission slip to take a little siesta this week. 20 minutes might be all you need.

Eat Slowly

Anyone else inhale their food?

Research shows that eating rapidly is linked to individuals having a higher body-mass index.

Why?

It can take up to 20 minutes (there’s that magic number again) for the “I’m Full” signal to reach the brain.

Slowing down the process of eating at meals by taking 20 minutes per meal or simply adding 5 more minutes per meal a day could be an extremely easy, yet impactful shift to help you lose weight.

Digital Detox

Email, text message, FaceTime, Zoom, Instagram, Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, Netflix…. The list goes on.

On any given day, we are consuming hours of digital information and for many, that consists of social media platforms.

Although technology allows us to connect with others worldwide, social media usage affects everyone differently.

Some studies show too much time spent online, particularly social media can lead to addictive behaviors, self-esteem issues, narcissistic tendencies, and feelings of isolation.

While a recent Harvard article shows that social media usage can have a positive impact on mental well-being.

And it varies across different demographics, races, age and socioeconomic statuses, 

If you struggle with intentional social media use, we suggest a 20-minute digital detox each day. Put the phone down, close the laptop, turn off the news, and replace it with one of the many healthy habits we’ve outlined here.

Need help with your digital detox? Try the free Forest app It helps you stay focused and be present by setting time limits. When you don’t want to access certain platforms or websites on your digital device, it gives you incentive by planting or “killing” beautiful digital trees.

Laugh More

Do we really need to tell you to laugh more?

It feels downright GOOD to laugh and we could all use more of it. Laughter can increase dopamine and serotonin which may produce similar effects as antidepressants.

Take 20 minutes to play a game, tell some jokes, or watch some funny home videos and LAUGH a little.

Here’s a funny video we LOVE.

 

Meditate

Clear your mind, clear your energy, clear your stress.

Meditation has been shown to have significant improvements on health and aside from practicing gratitude, may be THE best 20 minutes well spent. (Outside your 20-minute, twice a week workouts, of course 😉 )

Studies have shown meditation can:

  • Prevent respiratory illness
  • Help people stop smoking
  • Reduce anxiety
  • Reduce chronic pain
  • Improve functional ability
  • Be a therapeutic option for those with illness and diseases

Meditation can take place anytime anywhere as long as you can remain distraction free.

Although tapestries and incense are welcome, they are not needed to get the benefits of this magic method.

One of our favorite meditation apps is Headspace which has several meditation options for your unique needs.

Strength Train

Exercise in general is necessary for a healthy body and mind. Safe, effective and efficient exercise is achieved with slow-motion strength training. 

Here’s 13 Reasons WHY every adult should be doing it

Slow-motion strength training. 20 minutes, twice a week. It doesn’t get any easier than that.

Take 20 minutes for these 10 healthy habits to start improving your health:

  1. Practice Gratitude
  2. Take a Walk
  3. Ground Yourself
  4. Get some sunshine
  5. Take a nap
  6. Eat slower
  7. Take a digital detox
  8. Laugh more
  9. Meditate
  10. Strength Train

Let us help you start today.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/amymorin/2014/11/23/7-scientifically-proven-benefits-of-gratitude-that-will-motivate-you-to-give-thanks-year-round/?sh=bca261e183c0

 

https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/walking-your-steps-to-health

 

Oschman, James L et al. “The effects of grounding (earthing) on inflammation, the immune response, wound healing, and prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.” Journal of inflammation research vol. 8 83-96. 24 Mar. 2015, doi:10.2147/JIR.S69656

 

https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/vitamin-d-101#intro

 

LAHL, O., WISPEL, C., WILLIGENS, B. and PIETROWSKY, R. (2008), An ultra short episode of sleep is sufficient to promote declarative memory performance. Journal of Sleep Research, 17: 3-10. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2869.2008.00622.x

 

Leong SL, Madden C, Gray A, Waters D, Horwath C. Faster self-reported speed of eating is related to higher body mass index in a nationwide survey of middle-aged women. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Aug;111(8):1192-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2011.05.012. PMID: 21802566.

 

Andreassen CS, Pallesen S, Griffiths MD. The relationship between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem: Findings from a large national survey. Addict Behav. 2017 Jan;64:287-293. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.03.006. Epub 2016 Mar 19. PMID: 27072491.

 

https://www.google.com/url?q=https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/features/social-media-positive-mental-health/&sa=D&ust=1611007812189000&usg=AOvVaw2inMG5N7zTBxigcBblOZ6h

Cha MY, Hong HS.   Effect and Path Analysis of Laughter Therapy on Serotonin, Depression and Quality of Life in Middle-aged Women.   J Korean Acad Nurs. 2015 Apr;45(2):221-230.   https://doi.org/10.4040/jkan.2015.45.2.221



Barrett B, Hayney MS, Muller D, et al. Meditation or exercise for preventing acute respiratory infection: a randomized controlled trial. Annals of Family Medicine. 2012;10:337–346.

 

 

Carim-Todd L, Mitchell SH, Oken BS. Mind-body practices: an alternative, drug-free treatment for smoking cessation? A systematic review of the literature. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2013;132(3):399–410.

 

Chen KW, Berger CC, Manheimer E, et al. Meditative therapies for reducing anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Depression and Anxiety. 2012;29(7):545–562.

 

Cherkin DC, Sherman KJ, Balderson BH, et al. Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction vs cognitive behavioral therapy or usual care on back pain and functional limitations in adults with chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2016;315(12):1240–1249.

 

 

Gaylord SA, Palsson OS, Garland EL, et al. Mindfulness training reduces the severity of irritable bowel syndrome in women: results of a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2011;106(9):1678–1688.

 

 

Goyal M, Singh S, Sibinga EM, et al. Meditation programs for psychological stress and well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2014;174(3):357–368.

 

 

Jedel S, Hoffman A, Merriman P, et al. A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction to prevent flare-up in patients with inactive ulcerative colitis. Digestion. 2014;89:142–155.

Lakhan SE, Schofield KL. Mindfulness-based therapies in the treatment of somatization disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013;26;8(8):e71834.

Free weights vs Machines - members strength training

Free Weights vs Machines

Free Weights vs Machines, What’s Better? Free weights or machines? This debate has existed in the fitness industry since the first strength training machines were

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